Sicurezza sul lavoro, il fenomeno dei “Near miss”

Roma, 26 marzo 2021 – Near miss. Con questa espressione si indicano eventi che non causano lesioni o malattie ma che potrebbero potenzialmente produrle. In altre parole, i near miss sono legati alla presenza di situazioni o agenti che abbiano la caratteristica intrinseca di “pericolosità” e che, solo per l’instaurarsi di situazioni fortuite, non hanno provocato danni a persone o a cose.
Ai near miss dedica attenzione una recente pubblicazione dell’Inail, consultabile online sul sito istituzionale. Curata dalla Consulenza tecnica accertamento rischi e prevenzione (Contarp), dalla Consulenza statistico attuariale (Csa) e dal Dipartimento di medicina, epidemiologia, igiene del lavoro e ambientale (Dimeila) in collaborazione con Utilitalia e Fondazione Rubes Triva, la pubblicazione rientra tra le iniziative di collaborazione previste dal protocollo d’intesa stipulato nel 2018 fra l’Istituto e Utilitalia, la federazione che associa le imprese operanti nei servizi pubblici di erogazione di acqua, energia elettrica, gas e di altri servizi ambientali.
La segnalazione dei near miss, come ricordano gli autori nell’introduzione, porta l’impresa a far emergere le criticità di tipo organizzativo, tecnico e comportamentale e a poterle correggere prima che possano sfociare in un infortunio con conseguenze dannose sul lavoratore. Le potenzialità di previsione e anticipazione di conseguenze di difetti presenti nel sistema e segnalabili con i near miss può apportare un valore aggiunto alla mera rilevazione degli infortuni. Si tratta, solitamente, di eventi numericamente superiori agli infortuni e più rappresentativi statisticamente e permettono di intervenire con azioni mirate e di migliorare i livelli di prevenzione e protezione offerti dall’azienda. Uno strumento agevole anche per la valutazione dei rischi. In questo senso, il testo chiarisce utilmente come la gestione delle criticità non vada vista come un difetto da occultare, ma come parte integrante della gestione aziendale della sicurezza e del Sgsl da adottare e come strumento fondamentale per una procedura corretta di valutazione dei rischi, prevista dal decreto legislativo 81/2008 e da attuare anche con la partecipazione attiva dei lavoratori. La pubblicazione, quindi, vuole offrire alle aziende uno strumento semplice ed intuitivo, che tiene conto delle difficoltà gestionali e culturali presenti per scardinarle e per rendere più utile la rilevazione, la segnalazione, la presa in carico e la risoluzione di eventuali “difetti”, non nascondendo di contribuire, quale Segnalazione e analisi degli incidenti. La prima parte del volume, arricchito anche da diagrammi di flusso di facile comprensione, è incentrata sulla gestione del processo di segnalazione, registrazione e comunicazione, con la proposta di una procedura con l’indicazione di azioni, ruoli e responsabilità, e con una modulistica di riferimento da utilizzare. Capitoli specifici sono dedicati alle modalità operative e di comunicazione nei cantieri edili e alla formazione del personale. Successivamente, l’analisi viene svolta con l’aiuto della procedura Infor.Mo., il modello multifattoriale di archivio nazionale sviluppato da Dimeila Inail e Regioni, utilizzato dai servizi di prevenzione delle Asl per la sintesi e la standardizzazione delle informazioni acquisite durante le inchieste sugli infortuni lavorativi.

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