Sicurezza nelle scuole: chiarite le responsabilità dei Presidi

Roma, 3 gennaio 2022 – Il D.L. n. 146/2021 (c.d. decreto Fiscalità), coordinato con la legge di conversione n. 215/2021, ha introdotto alcune novità sugli obblighi in capo al Preside in materia di salute e sicurezza sul lavoro.
In particolare, ad integrazione dell’art. 18 del Testo Unico Sicurezza, è stato precisato che i dirigenti scolastici sono esentati da qualsiasi responsabilità (civile, amministrativa e penale) nel caso in cui richiedano tempestivamente gli interventi strutturali e di manutenzione dei locali e degli edifici scolastici.
I Presidi, dunque, sono tenuti esclusivamente ad inoltrare tale richiesta e ad adottare le conseguenti misure di carattere gestionale che rientrano nella propria competenza.
Solamente nel caso in cui il dirigente scolastico rilevi un «pericolo grave e immediato», il suo potere può spingersi ad interdire l’utilizzo dei locali e degli edifici e a disporre l’evacuazione, dandone comunicazione all’amministratore e alle autorità competenti. In queste particolari circostanze, il Preside non è perseguibile per i reati di interruzione di servizio pubblico e di procurato allarme.
È inoltre precisato che la valutazione dei rischi strutturali degli edifici e l’individuazione delle misure di prevenzione spetta esclusivamente all’amministratore, mentre la redazione del Documento di Valutazione dei Rischi (DVR) è in capo al dirigente scolastico e, congiuntamente, all’amministratore.
Al riguardo, le modalità di questa valutazione “congiunta” saranno definite in un prossimo decreto del Ministero dell’Istruzione, di concerto con il Ministero del Lavoro.
Il Decreto non introduce un vero e proprio “scudo legale” per i Presidi. Piuttosto, chiarisce il perimetro delle responsabilità in capo a tali soggetti e agli amministratori, in relazione ai compiti e alle competenze ad essi assegnati e alla gravità del rischio occorso.

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