Piattaforme cooperative per la sharing economy

(Eurofound, 31 marzo 2022)

Come noto, il lavoro su piattaforma è al centro della “sharing economy”. Sebbene questo modello di business e lavoro possa apparire come una nuova forma di solidarietà digitale, recentemente l’attenzione si è focalizzata sulle precarie condizioni sociali dei suoi lavoratori con mansioni micro. Tra le criticità più evidenti, si annoverano: lavoro autonomo fittizio, alti livelli di precarietà del reddito, mancanza di attrezzature adeguate e nessun accesso alle assicurazioni sociali.
Nel tentativo di evitare queste insidie, i lavoratori delle piattaforme hanno iniziato a creare cooperative che contribuiscono a garantire realmente l’economia della condivisione, nel rispetto dei diritti dei lavoratori. In particolare, le cooperative mirano a garantire condizioni di lavoro dignitose, l’accesso alla protezione sociale e l’aumento della soddisfazione generale sul lavoro.
Di conseguenza, le piattaforme cooperative stanno cambiando il modello di business della piattaforma, da una struttura altamente gerarchica e guidata dal mercato ad un’organizzazione di proprietà collettiva. La gestione collettiva del lavoro, inoltre, non si basa sull’uso dell’algoritmo “oscuro” che controlla e coordina il lavoro.
Un esempio di piattaforma cooperativa è l’italiana Fairbnb, che finalizza una parte dei profitti a progetti a beneficio della comunità locale, allo scopo di generare un turismo sostenibile.
Si tratta tuttavia di un fenomeno ancora limitato, poco diffuso a livello europeo. Uno dei motivi risiede nelle difficoltà di accesso ai finanziamenti. Infatti, investitori e banche hanno scarso interesse a finanziare le cooperative perché non sono principalmente orientate al profitto. Ciò presenta un enorme svantaggio in particolare nell’economia delle piattaforme, che si basa su un’intensa concorrenza e sul massimo risparmio dei costi. Pertanto, le politiche nazionale dovrebbero, da un lato, impedire alle piattaforme di competere tra loro facendo affidamento su manodopera precaria e a basso costo e, dall’altro, sostenere le imprese sociali per garantire la loro sostenibilità finanziaria.


Per approfondire: Eurofound_platform_cooperatives

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