Decreto fiscale: misure in tema di salute e sicurezza sul lavoro

Roma, 16 dicembre 2021 – Con voto di fiducia la Camera ha approvato in via definitiva la conversione in legge del Decreto su fisco e Lavoro, che contiene, fra le altre,numerose e variegate misure in materia di salute e sicurezza sul lavoro.

 Ispettorato nazionale del lavoro
Tra le varie disposizioni, le modifiche relative alla vigilanza sull’applicazione della legislazione in materia di salute e sicurezza nei luoghi di lavoro, la cui competenza viene estesa all’Ispettorato nazionale del lavoro. Viene inoltre stabilito che ASL e Ispettorato promuovono e coordinano sul piano operativo l’attività di vigilanza a livello provinciale.

Sospensione attività imprenditoriale
Viene sostituito integralmente l’articolo 14 del decreto 81 in materia di provvedimenti degli organi di vigilanza per il contrasto del lavoro irregolare e per la tutela della salute e sicurezza dei lavoratori. In particolare, viene disposto che l’Ispettorato nazionale del lavoro adotta un provvedimento di sospensione dell’attività imprenditoriale quando riscontra che almeno il 10% dei lavoratori presenti sul luogo di lavoro risulti occupato, al momento dell’accesso ispettivo, senza preventiva comunicazione di instaurazione del rapporto di lavoro ovvero inquadrato come lavoratori autonomi occasionali in assenza delle condizioni richieste dalla normativa nonché, a prescindere dal settore di intervento, in caso di gravi violazioni in materia di tutela della salute e della sicurezza del lavoro. 
Viene inoltre previsto che l’avvio dell’attività dei lavoratori autonomi occasionali sia oggetto di preventiva comunicazione all’Ispettorato territoriale del lavoro da parte del committente, mediante sms o posta elettronica. La violazione di tale obbligo comporta la sanzione amministrativa da 500 a 2.500 euro in relazione a ciascun lavoratore autonomo occasionale per cui è stata omessa o ritardata la comunicazione. Non si applica la procedura di diffida di cui all’articolo 13 del D.lgs. n. 124/2004, prevista in caso di inosservanza delle norme di legge o di contratto collettivo in materia di lavoro e legislazione sociale e qualora il personale ispettivo rilevi inadempimenti dai quali derivino sanzioni amministrative in sede di ispezione presso i luoghi di lavoro.
Il provvedimento di sospensione è adottato in relazione alla parte dell’attività imprenditoriale interessata dalle violazioni o, alternativamente, dell’attività lavorativa prestata dai lavoratori interessati dalle violazioni indicate. Unitamente al provvedimento di sospensione l’Ispettorato nazionale del lavoro può imporre specifiche misure atte a far cessare il pericolo per la sicurezza o per la salute dei lavoratori durante il lavoro.
Per tutto il periodo di sospensione:

  • è fatto divieto all’impresa di contrattare con la pubblica amministrazione e con le stazioni appaltanti, come definite dal codice dei contratti pubblici, di cui al D.lgs. n. 50/2016;
  • il datore di lavoro è tenuto a corrispondere la retribuzione e a versare i contributi ai lavoratori interessati.

Il datore di lavoro che non ottempera al provvedimento di sospensione è punito con l’arresto fino a 6 mesi nelle ipotesi di sospensione per le violazioni in materia di tutela della salute e della sicurezza sul lavoro e con l’arresto da 3 a 6 mesi o con l’ammenda da 2.500 a 6.400 euro nelle ipotesi di sospensione per lavoro irregolare.

Obbligo della nomina della figura del preposto
Il decreto modifica poi gli articolo 18 e 19 del D.lgs. 81/2008, prevedendo tra gli obblighi del datore di lavoro e del dirigente quello di individuare il preposto o preposti per l’effettuazione delle attività di vigilanza, con possibilità, per i contratti e gli accordi collettivi di lavoro di stabilire l’emolumento ad essi spettante. Il preposto non può subire pregiudizio alcuno a causa dello svolgimento della propria attività. Il preposto ha il compito di sovrintendere e vigilare sulla osservanza da parte dei singoli lavoratori dei loro obblighi di legge, nonché delle disposizioni aziendali in materia di salute e sicurezza sul lavoro e di uso dei mezzi di protezione collettivi e dei dispositivi di protezione individuale messi a loro disposizione e, in caso di rilevazione di non conformità comportamentali in ordine alle disposizioni e istruzioni impartite dal datore di lavoro e dirigenti ai fini della protezione collettiva e individuale, intervenire per modificare il comportamento non conforme fornendo le necessarie indicazioni di sicurezza. In caso di mancata attuazione delle disposizioni impartite o di persistenza della inosservanza, interrompere l’attività del lavoratore e informare i superiori diretti; in caso di rilevazione di deficienze dei mezzi e delle attrezzature di lavoro e di ogni condizione di pericolo rilevata durante la vigilanza, se necessario, interrompere temporaneamente l’attività e, comunque, segnalare tempestivamente al datore di lavoro e al dirigente le non conformità rilevate.
L’articolo 12-ter del decreto reca una norma di interpretazione autentica in materia di assegni assistenziali di invalidità civile. In particolare, si chiarisce che il requisito dell’inattività lavorativa, previsto dall’articolo 13 della legge n. 118/1971, si intende in ogni caso soddisfatto qualora il reddito derivante dall’eventuale attività lavorativa del soggetto non superi annualmente i 4.931,29 euro, permettendo così di cumulare l’assegno con corrispettivi da lavoro entro i limiti reddituali indicati.

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