Cassazione: chiarimenti sull’onere della prova

Roma, 30 agosto 2021 – Torna il tema dell’onere della prova nelle malattie professionali. Il chiarimento arriva dalla Cassazione (ordinanza n. 22873/2021) che si è pronunciata sul ricorso di un lavoratore contro l’Inail. Secondo i giudici, nella malattia professionale derivante da lavorazione non tabellata o ad eziologia multifattoriale, la prova della causa di lavoro grava sul lavoratore “e deve essere valutata in termini di ragionevole certezza, nel senso che, esclusa la rilevanza della mera possibilità dell’origine professionale, questa può essere ravvisata in un rilevante grado di probabilità da accertare in relazione all’entità dell’esposizione del lavoratore ai fattori di rischio, potendosi desumere, con elevato grado di probabilità, la natura professionale della malattia dalla tipologia della lavorazione, dalle caratteristiche dei macchinari presenti nell’ambiente di lavoro, dalla durata della prestazione stessa, nonché dall’assenza di altri fattori causali extra-lavorativi alternativi o concorrenti”
Sempre secondo la Cassazione, nell’ipotesi di malattia ad eziologia multifattoriale, “il nesso di causalità relativo all’origine professionale di essa non può essere oggetto di semplici presunzioni tratte da ipotesi tecniche teoricamente possibili, ma necessita di una concreta e specifica dimostrazione, che può essere, peraltro, data anche in via di probabilità, ma soltanto ove si tratti di “probabilità qualificata”, da verificare attraverso ulteriori elementi idonei a tradurre in certezza giuridica le conclusioni in termini probabilistici del consulente tecnico”.
Nel caso specifico, il lavoratore si era visto respingere, in sede di merito, la domanda volta alla condanna dell’Inail alla costituzione di una rendita per malattie professionali (spondilouncoartrosi del tratto cervicale e lombare, focalità erniaria paramediana dx C5-C6 e protrusioni discali multiple di origine professionale) che assumeva di aver contratto in occasione dell’attività di lavoro svolta alle dipendenze di Enel s.p.a.
Ad avviso della Corte d’appello, quanto agli accertamenti in fatto, dagli esiti della consulenza tecnica espletata era emerso il pacifico svolgimento da parte dell’attore dell’attività di operaio elettricista Enel impegnato nel montaggio, manutenzione e riparazione di elettrodotti e da ciò si poteva presumere che l’appellato nel corso della sua attività lavorativa aveva movimentato pesi in assenza di ausili meccanici anche con l’assunzione di posture incongrue ed era stato esposto a vibrazioni estese a tutto il corpo connesse all’utilizzo di mezzi meccanici; tuttavia, a prescindere dalle considerazioni relative alla effettiva esposizione al rischio lavorativo, non risultava essere stato oggetto di denuncia all’INAIL alcuna malattia relativa al tratto cervicale della colonna vertebrale ma bensì quelle relative al distretto lombo-sacrale e tali ultime non potevano ritenersi di natura professionale in ragione del fatto che il lavoratore aveva lavorato alle dipendenze dell’ENEL sino al dicembre 2001 e dal referto RX del rachide dallo stesso prodotto risalente al maggio 2002 si era evidenziata la riduzione della fisiologica lordosi, l’assenza delle alterazioni strutturali focali dei metameri esaminati, iniziali alterazioni spondilosiche associate a riduzione dello spazio intersomatico L5-S1; pertanto, andavano condivise le conclusioni del c.t.u. che aveva ritenuto il quadro radiologico conforme a quello della popolazione media avente età corrispondente (57 anni). La Suprema Corte ha posto fine alla vicenda evidenziando come, le tabelle Inail riportino le spondilodiscopatie, assieme all’ernia, nel gruppo 2 dell’elenco delle malattie per denuncia sanitaria ex art. 139 TU di cui al decreto 11.12.2009 dal Ministero del lavoro e delle Politiche Sociali): nella Lista I (origine lavorativa di elevata probabilità) per “Movimentazione manuale dei carichi eseguita con continuità durante il turno lavorativo” e nella Lista II (origine lavorativa di limitata probabilità) per “Vibrazioni trasmesse al corpo intero per le attività di guida di guida di automezzi pesanti e conduzione di mezzi meccanici”.


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