Lavoro minorile, si arresta la tendenza al ribasso nel mondo

Roma, 10 giugno 2021 – Il futuro dei bambini costretti al lavoro minorile è un futuro nero. Per la prima volta da venti anni il sensibile regresso si è arrestato. Secondo i dati Unicef-Ilo, negli ultimi quattro anni c’è stato un aumento di 8,4 milioni. Altri milioni di bambini sono a rischio a causa dell’impatto della crisi generata dal COVID-19. Il rapporto segnala che, a livello globale, nove milioni di bambini in più rischiano di essere spinti verso il lavoro minorile entro la fine del 2022 proprio a causa della pandemia. Un modello di simulazione mostra che questo numero potrebbe salire a 46 milioni se questi bambini non hanno accesso alla protezione sociale.
Il rapporto Child labour: 2020 global estimates, trends and the road forward  (“Lavoro minorile: stime globali 2020, tendenze e percorsi per il futuro”) — pubblicato in occasione della Giornata mondiale contro il lavoro minorile che segna le celebrazioni del 12 giugno, giornata internazionale dedicata al lavoro minorile  —segnala che la tendenza al ribasso che ha visto il lavoro minorile diminuire di 94 milioni tra il 2000 e il 2016 si è interrotta.
Il rapporto evidenzia  che i bambini di età compresa tra i 5 e gli 11 anni costretti in forme di  lavoro minorile sono aumentati in modo significativo e rappresentano poco più della metà del totale a livello globale. Dal 2016, il numero di  bambini di età compresa tra i 5 e i 17 anni occupati in lavori pericolosi — definiti come lavori che possono danneggiare la salute e lo sviluppo psico-fisico e morale dei bambini e adolescenti— è aumentato di 6,5 milioni, fino a raggiungere 79 milioni.
“Le nuove stime sono un campanello d’allarme. Non possiamo restare a guardare mentre una nuova generazione di bambini è a rischio”, ha affermato  il Direttore Generale dell’OIL, Guy Ryder. “Un sistema di  protezione sociale inclusivo permette alle famiglie di poter mandare  i loro figli a scuola anche in un contesto di vulnerabilità e difficoltà economica. È essenziale aumentare gli investimenti nello sviluppo rurale e nel lavoro dignitoso in agricoltura. Ci troviamo  in un momento cruciale e molto dipende dalla qualità della nostra risposta. È ora di rinnovare con forza il nostro impegno per invertire la rotta e spezzare il ciclo della povertà e del lavoro minorile”.
Nell’Africa sub-sahariana, la crescita della popolazione, le crisi ricorrenti, l’estrema povertà e le misure inadeguate di protezione sociale hanno costretto ulteriori16,6 milioni di bambini in forme di  lavoro minorile negli ultimi quattro anni.
Anche nelle regioni in cui c’è stato qualche progresso sin dal 2016, come l’Asia e il Pacifico e l’America latina e i Caraibi, il COVID-19 sta mettendo in pericolo questi progressi.
Ulteriori crisi economiche – e le conseguenti  chiusure delle scuole, a causa del COVID-19, hanno costretto in alcuni casi i bambini che già lavoravano a lavorare più a lungo o in condizioni peggiori. Inoltre, molti altri potrebbero essere costretti nelle forme  peggiori di lavoro minorile a causa del venir meno del lavoro e del reddito nelle famiglie che si trovano in una condizione di vulnerabilità.
“Stiamo perdendo terreno nella lotta contro il lavoro minorile e l’ultimo anno non ha reso questa lotta più facile”, ha affermato la Direttrice Generale dell’UNICEF Henrietta Fore. “In questo secondo anno di confinamento a livello mondiale, con la chiusura delle scuole, l’interruzione delle attività economiche e la riduzione dei bilanci nazionali, le famiglie sono costrette a fare scelte disperate. Esortiamo i governi e le banche internazionali per lo sviluppo a dare priorità agli investimenti in programmi che possano far uscire i bambini dalla forza lavoro e riportarli a scuola, e in programmi di protezione sociale che possano aiutare le famiglie ad evitare di ricorrere a tale scelta”.

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