Telelavoro dopo la pandemia: le sfide regolatorie

Roma, 7 settembre 2021 – Eurofound torna ad analizzare l’impiego del telelavoro in Europa durante la pandemia, delineandone le prospettive in termini di regolazione e di organizzazione del lavoro. Dati alla mano, durante la pandemia l’impiego del telelavoro è aumentato in tutta l’Unione europea, in misura elevata soprattutto in alcuni Paesi come l’Italia (oltre il 150% in più). Il consistente aumento nel nostro Paese, in realtà, è anche spiegabile in ragione dell’uso esiguo del telelavoro prima dell’emergenza pandemica.
In prospettiva, l’impiego del telelavoro sarà sospinto e, al contempo, agevolato dal crescente uso delle tecnologie digitali negli ambienti di lavoro, rendendo “telelavorabili” molte attività lavorative. Probabilmente, il lavoro a distanza permarrà nell’organizzazione del lavoro del prossimo futuro, specie nella sua formulazione “ibrida” che prevede parte dell’orario di lavoro in presenza e parte da remoto.
In secondo luogo, secondo le indagini di Eurofound, i lavoratori esprimono una considerevole preferenza per il lavoro da casa o da remoto, specie nella forma ibrida, soprattutto in ragione delle esigenze di conciliazione vita-lavoro, della maggiore autonomia lavorativa e della riduzione dei tempi previsti per gli spostamenti casa-lavoro. Allo stesso tempo, molte aziende stanno sviluppando piani di lavoro flessibile che aumentino la produttività dei lavoratori e attraggano forza lavoro maggiormente qualificata.
A fronte dei vantaggi offerti dal telelavoro, tuttavia, persistono numerose criticità. In genere, il lavoro da remoto compromette la chiara ripartizione tra tempi di lavoro e tempi di vita, allungando l’orario di lavoro oltre le previsioni contrattuali. Si pensi che, secondo i sondaggi Eurofound, gli orari di telelavoro durante la pandemia si aggirano tra le 41 e le 60 ore settimanali.
Inoltre, non sempre il telelavoro facilita la conciliazione vita-lavoro, quando le incombenze familiari non permettono al lavoratore di affrontare con serenità una giornata lavorativa da casa. In terzo luogo, emergono rischi associati alla salute e al benessere psichico dei telelavoratori, come i rischi muscolo-scheletrici correlati alla mancanza di attrezzature ergonomiche, l’eccessivo affaticamento degli occhi connesso all’uso dei dispositivi digitali e l’incremento di ansia e isolamento cagionato dalla mancata interazione sociale e dal sovraccarico lavorativo associato agli impegni familiari.
Alla luce di questo quadro, è necessario accelerare gli interventi regolatori a livello europeo e nazionale, attraverso la legislazione e la contrattazione collettiva, allo scopo di fissare gli standard legati soprattutto al diritto alla disconnessione, al controllo sull’orario di lavoro, alla fornitura delle attrezzature da parte dei datori di lavoro, alla gestione della salute e sicurezza dei lavoratori e alla effettiva conciliazione vita lavoro.

Per approfondire:

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