Diabete, studio su più di 4 milioni: le categorie a rischio

18 settembre 2019. Autisti professionisti, lavoratori del settore manifatturiero e delle pulizie hanno un rischio tre volte maggiore di ammalarsi di diabete di tipo 2 rispetto a docenti universitari, fisioterapisti, scrittori e lavoratori del settore creativo. Ad indicare che il tipo di occupazione lavorativa puo’ rappresentare un fattore di rischio per il diabete e’ un grande studio effettuato dal Karolinska Institute di Stoccolma , presentato al 55/o Congresso dell’Associazione europea per lo studio del diabete (Easd). Il Registro della popolazione totale svedese e’ stato utilizzato per identificare tutti i cittadini svedesi nati tra il 1937 ed il 1979. Di questi, un totale di 4.550.892 persone erano impiegate tra il 2001 ed il 2013, rappresentando il campione considerato per lo studio. Le ampie differenze tra categorie professionali, spiegano gli autori, sarebbero determinate dalla prevalenza dei fattori di rischio legati allo stile di vita. Per questo, si rileva nello studio, se interventi sul posto di lavoro fossero mirati a ridurre il peso corporeo ed incrementare l’attivita’ fisica tra i lavoratori, si potrebbero ottenere “grandi vantaggi” in termini di salute.

Forti le differenze per la prevalenza della malattia, che raggiunge il 7,8% negli uomini impiegati nel settore manifatturiero e l’8,8% negli autisti di veicoli, mentre si reduce al 2,5% negli uomini impiegati nel settore dell’informatica. Anche tra le donne, la prevalenza del diabete e’ piu’ alta tra le impiegate nel settore manifatturiero (6,4%), assistenti di cucina (5,5%) e settore delle pulizie (5,1%), mentre e’ piu’ bassa tra le manager (1,2%). E’ dunque possibile, concludono gli autori dello studio, che la vita lavorativa “aggiunga maggiori fattori di rischio per lo sviluppo della malattia, come tempi molto lunghi trascorsi seduti, orari lavorativi irregolari e stress. Il peso e l’influenza delle condizioni di lavoro nello sviluppo del diabete 2 dovrebbero dunque rappresentare una questione di interesse da approfondire”.

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