Legge n. 4 – Ratifica ed esecuzione della Convenzione dell’ILO n. 190 sull’eliminazione della violenza e delle molestie sul luogo di lavoro a cura dell'Ufficio Salute e Sicurezza

1 febbraio 2021 – Con la legge n. 4 del 15 gennaio 2021 il Presidente della Repubblica è stato autorizzato a ratificare la Convenzione dell’Organizzazione internazionale del lavoro (OIL) n. 190 sull’eliminazione della violenza e delle molestie sul luogo di lavoro, adottata a Ginevra il 21 giugno 2019 nel corso della 108ª sessione della Conferenza generale dell’OIL.
Con il provvedimento è stata data piena ed intera esecuzione alla medesima Convenzione.
Nello specifico, con la Convenzione OIL n. 190 ciascun Membro si impegna ad adottare leggi e regolamenti che definiscano e proibiscano la violenza e le molestie nel mondo del lavoro, inclusi violenza e molestie di genere.
Ai sensi dell’art. 1 della Convenzione OIL n. 190 l’espressione “violenza e molestie” nel mondo del lavoro indica un insieme di pratiche e di comportamenti inaccettabili, o la minaccia di porli in essere, sia in un’unica occasione, sia ripetutamente, che si prefiggano, causino o possano comportare un danno fisico, psicologico, sessuale o economico, e include la violenza e le molestie di genere. Mentre  l’espressione “violenza e molestie di genere” indica la violenza e le molestie nei confronti di persone in ragione del loro sesso o genere, o che colpiscano in modo sproporzionato persone di un sesso o genere specifico, ivi comprese le molestie sessuali.
Nell’ottica della prevenzione e dell’eliminazione della violenza e delle molestie nel mondo del lavoro, la Convenzione OIL n. 190 prevede (art. 5) che ciascun Membro si impegni a rispettare, promuovere e attuare i principi e i diritti fondamentali sul lavoro, con particolare riferimento: alla libertà di associazione e all’effettivo riconoscimento del diritto alla contrattazione collettiva; l’eliminazione di tutte le forme di lavoro forzato o obbligatorio; l’effettiva abolizione del lavoro minorile e l’eliminazione della discriminazione in materia di impiego e professione, oltre a promuovere il lavoro dignitoso.

La Convenzione OIL n. 190 stabilisce altresì (art. 9) che ciascun Membro adotti leggi e regolamenti che richiedano ai datori di lavoro di intraprendere misure in materia di prevenzione della violenza e delle molestie nel mondo del lavoro attraverso:

  1. l’adozione e l’attuazione, in consultazione con le lavoratrici e i lavoratori e i loro rappresentanti, di una politica in materia di violenza e di molestie a livello aziendale;
  2. l’inclusione della violenza e delle molestie, come pure dei rischi psicosociali correlati, nella gestione della salute e della sicurezza sul lavoro;
  3. l’identificazione dei pericoli e la valutazione dei rischi relativi alla violenza e alle molestie, con la partecipazione delle lavoratrici e dei lavoratori e dei rispettivi rappresentanti, e l’adozione di misure per prevenirli e tenerli sotto controllo;
  4. l’erogazione di informazioni e formazione alle lavoratrici, ai lavoratori e ad altri soggetti interessati, in modalità accessibili a seconda dei casi, in merito ai 6 pericoli e ai rischi identificati di violenza e di molestie e alle relative misure di prevenzione e di protezione, ivi compresi i diritti e le responsabilità dei lavoratori e di altri soggetti interessati.

Inoltre, la Convenzione ha lo scopo di proteggere i lavoratori indipendentemente dal loro status contrattuale, ricomprendendo anche coloro che stanno vivendo una esperienza formativa, i tirocinanti, gli apprendisti, i volontari, nonché coloro che sono stati licenziati o che sono in cerca di lavoro. Essa si applica a tutti i settori, sia privati che pubblici, sia nell’economia formale che in quella informale, e in aree urbane o rurali (art. 2). Anche il concetto di “luogo di lavoro” è molto ampio, riferito a tutti quei luoghi dove il lavoratore è retribuito (anche in pausa o nel momento in cui usa i servizi igienici), oppure i luoghi percorsi durante gli spostamenti, i viaggi, gli eventi e la formazione inerenti l’attività lavorativa e il percorso casa-lavoro (art. 3). È importante evidenziare che, riconoscendo che tali comportamenti possono essere veicolati anche tramite gli strumenti digitali, anche le comunicazioni attraverso l’uso della tecnologia sono ricomprese nel concetto di lavoro (art. 3, lettera d).
La Convenzione OIL n. 190 è stata oggetto di approfondimento nel 3° Rapporto ANMIL sulla salute e sulla sicurezza nei luoghi di lavoro.

Per approfondire:
LEGGE_15_gennaio_2021_n_4

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