Il Convegno “Mille giorni contro il caporalato e lo sfruttamento del lavoro” a cura dell'Ufficio Salute e Sicurezza

Prospettive e criticità emerse a mille giorni dall’entrata in vigore della Legge n.199\2016.

25 novembe 2019 – Martedì 19 novembre 2019, all’interno della splendida cornice romana della Sala del Parlamentino dell’Inail, si è svolto il Convegno “Mille giorni contro il caporalato e lo sfruttamento del lavoro” promosso da ANMIL e AIC (Associazione Italiana Coltivatori), con l’obiettivo di valutare, attraverso il susseguirsi di interventi di un pool di esperti relatori, l’efficacia e i risultati della legge n. 199 del 29 ottobre 2016, dedicata al contrasto al caporalato e allo sfruttamento del lavoro, a mille giorni dal giro di vite disposto dal legislatore.
Ad aprire i lavori, coordinati da Giuseppina Paterniti, Direttrice del Tg3 RAI, sono stati i saluti del Presidente dell’Inail Franco Bettoni, che ha sottolineato l’importanza di capisaldi quali sicurezza e legittimità come basi di un lavoro dignitoso, evidenziando anche alcuni dati relativi ai risultati prodotti dalla legge contro il caporalato, attraverso la quale, in tre anni, sono state denunciate ben 659 persone. Con il costante e puntuale supporto delle vignette realizzate dal facilitatore grafico Michele Russo, anche Zoello Forni, Presidente nazionale di ANMIL, nel corso del proprio intervento di apertura ha potuto rimarcare come quelli dell’agricoltura e dell’edilizia siano i due settori più fortemente colpiti dal caporalato, auspicando una sempre crescente applicazione della normativa a disposizione, nonostante il già rassicurante aumento di controlli del 26% dalla data di pubblicazione della legge n.  199. Infine, al termine della parte dedicata ai saluti istituzionali, si è tenuto l’intervento di Giuseppino Santoianni, Presidente dell’AIC, incentrato sulla prassi criminale mediante la quale il caporale, attraverso l’uso della violenza fisica e psicologica, mette in atto un dominio totale nei confronti dei braccianti. L’augurio del Presidente è stato quello di dar vita ad una precisa mappatura dei territori, anche e soprattutto in base alla stagionalità della produzione agricola, potendo così comprendere meglio i movimenti dei lavoratori e garantendo al contempo agli stessi un trasporto pubblico che li conduca sino ai campi, limitando così ab origine il fenomeno del caporalato.
Ha preso poi la parola il Magistrato della Corte di Cassazione Bruno Giordano, il quale ha voluto anzitutto elencare gli elementi di novità introdotti dalla legge: la previsione di un nuovo reato, grazie alla quale si è giunti, in tre anni, ad oltre mille procedimenti legali, contro i soli 29 degli anni precedenti l’atto normativo; le possibilità, nelle mani delle forze dei magistrati, di disporre sequestri e confische a chiunque violi la legge; la costituzione di un fondo anti-tratta, continuamente rimpolpato proprio mediante i suddetti sequestri e confische. Nell’analisi di ciò che è alla base di quello che “non può essere definito un fenomeno, poiché nulla di ciò che riguarda il caporalato è inspiegabile”, Giordano ha rimarcato il predominio del profitto sfrenato sul diritto: l’utilizzo dello stato di necessità dei braccianti, da parte dell’imprenditore e del caporale designato, volto ad un guadagno sempre crescente. Dopo aver citato alcune significative sentenze e dati statistici (ben 400.000 i lavoratori che in Italia sono quotidianamente vittime di sfruttamento da caporalato), il Magistrato ha evidenziato uno dei principali problemi che non permettono un’azione più decisa da parte dello Stato: le condizioni di lavoro degli ispettori delle ASL e dell’Ispettorato Nazionale del Lavoro. Non è stata data vita, infatti, ad un corpo unico, ma si è tentato di creare un coordinamento tra due entità distinte, necessitando così il coinvolgimento di troppi enti prima di arrivare ad un arresto, anche se in flagranza di reato.
Alle parole di Bruno Giordano hanno fatto seguito quelle dell’Avv. Maria Giovannone, Responsabile dell’Ufficio Salute e Sicurezza di ANMIL, la quale ha dapprima evidenziato come sarebbe più utile dare attuazione alle norme già esistenti, piuttosto che auspicare nuove produzioni normative da parte del legislatore: è il caso, ad esempio, dei provvedimenti inattuati del Decreto 81, tra i quali rientra il sistema di qualificazione delle imprese. Tutela prevenzionistica ed organizzazione del lavoro sono state le parole chiave dell’intervento: fenomeni come il dumping contrattuale (vale a dire l’applicazione di contratti firmati da organizzazioni datoriali e sindacali non maggiormente rappresentativi e che applicano forme di ribasso delle tabelle contributive non conformi) o del working poor (coinvolgente chiunque, nonostante un impiego, non riesca a superare la soglia di povertà relativa) sono sempre più all’ordine del giorno, ragion per cui non è più sufficiente limitare l’analisi ad un contesto nazionale, ma si sta rendendo indispensabile un dibattito internazionale, per non dire globale, tra ragioni di mercato e di diritto. A tal proposito, è auspicabile una ripartizione della governance dell’ILO, includendovi anche quelle ONG ed Onlus che possano apportare contributi significativi e nuovi punti di vista.
Infine, ha preso la parola Tommaso Nannicini, membro della Commissione Lavoro del Senato della Repubblica il quale ha voluto ribadire l’importanza di leggere la legge in analisi come un punto di partenza, piuttosto che di arrivo. A tale proposito, molto importante è stata l’istituzione di una commissione parlamentare d’inchiesta sulle condizioni di lavoro in Italia, sullo sfruttamento e sulla sicurezza nei luoghi di lavoro, che sarà in carica per l’intera durata della XVIII Legislatura con il compito di fornire relazioni annuali sull’andamento dei fenomeni. Parole parzialmente critiche hanno fatto seguito a quanto già sostenuto dal magistrato Giordano in relazione all’Agenzia unica per le ispezioni del lavoro, che sarebbe stato meglio basare su competenze realmente complementari, piuttosto che meramente coordinate, e ciò sarebbe stato possibile anche e soprattutto grazie ad importanti investimenti. La proposta di Nannicini per la lotta al caporalato è stata, in chiusura, quella di riaprire i canali legali di migrazione professionale, disincentivando così tutti quei fenomeni paralleli ed illegali.

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