Unione Europea: il gap di genere nella retribuzione di produttività

(ETUI, febbraio 2022)

Roma, 11 febbraio 2022 – L’European Trade Union Institute (ETUI) ha pubblicato lo studio ‘Gender inequality in performance-related pay: a gap in the EU equal pay agenda’ che analizza il fenomeno del divario di genere in Europa.
In linea generale, i dati Eurostat mostrano che il divario retributivo di genere nell’UE rimane significativo alto (14,1%), con una riduzione di meno di due punti percentuali nell’ultimo decennio.
Tale divario è esacerbato dalla retribuzione legata al rendimento, individuale o collettivo, sempre più prevalente nell’UE: se nel 2000 interessava meno di 1/5 dei lavoratori, nel 2015 si è giunti ad 1/3. Tuttavia, tale diffusione è avvenuta in maniera assai disomogenea tra uomini e donne. Gli uomini, infatti, hanno maggiori probabilità di ricevere una retribuzione legata al rendimento e in quantità maggiore, posto che la sua diffusione è concentrata nelle aziende più grandi, tra i livelli salariali più alti, per il lavoro a tempo pieno piuttosto che a tempo parziale e in determinati settori e occupazioni. Si tratta, pertanto, di occupazioni e settori con un tasso di partecipazione femminile più basso rispetto agli uomini. Il divario di genere è cresciuto principalmente in relazione ai premi di team o aziendali, che sono più strettamente correlati alla partecipazione agli utili e possono riflettere in media il minor potere contrattuale delle donne. A livello quantitativo, i premi per gli uomini che ricevono una retribuzione legata alle prestazioni sono quattro volte (o più) superiori a quelli che ricevono le donne. Inoltre, è da evidenziare che le donne, non solo ricevono meno spesso la retribuzione legata al rendimento, ma quando lo fanno ne beneficiano meno in termini di guadagno.
Riguardo le motivazioni alla base del gap di genere nelle posizioni che accedono alla retribuzione di produttività, alcuni studi hanno smentito che le donne scelgono di non lavorare tanto spesso quanto gli uomini nei lavori più competitivi, standard e altamente qualificati. Piuttosto, una spiegazione più probabile risiede nel fatto che questi schemi retributivi legati alla performance dipendono molto dalla discrezionalità manageriale, soprattutto quando la performance è difficile da misurare, lasciando ampio spazio agli stereotipi di genere nelle valutazioni.
L’attuale quadro giuridico UE sulla parità retributiva potrebbe rappresentare un argine, anche se limitato, alle differenze di genere nella retribuzione legata ai risultati. In particolare, l’articolo 4 della direttiva sulla parità di genere (2006/54/CE) vieta la discriminazione diretta e indiretta in base al sesso per quanto riguarda tutti gli aspetti della retribuzione per lo stesso lavoro o tra lavori cui è attribuito uguale valore. Riguardo questo aspetto, poiché i regimi retributivi di produttività generalmente non pongono alcuni lavoratori in (s)vantaggio solo a causa del loro sesso, essi non sono direttamente discriminatori, ma potrebbero costituire una discriminazione indiretta. Secondo la direttiva, ciò si verifica quando una disposizione, un criterio o una pratica apparentemente neutri metterebbero le persone di un sesso in una posizione di particolare svantaggio rispetto alle persone dell’altro sesso (articolo 3). Questa disposizione potrebbe essere presa in considerazione quando un regime retributivo legato al rendimento «sfavorisca di fatto una percentuale notevolmente più elevata di donne che di uomini», riprendendo le parole della Corte di giustizia UE su questioni affini (causa 332/98, Kachelmann). Ciò include una situazione in cui una percentuale considerevolmente inferiore di donne rispetto agli uomini è in grado di soddisfare requisiti che danno loro diritto a un particolare elemento retributivo (causa 96/80, Jenkins).
Tuttavia, è noto che il concetto di discriminazione indiretta, oggetto di alcune controversie, può essere difficile da applicare nella pratica, sia in termini di definizione degli appropriati gruppi di comparazione sia in termini di presenza di un particolare svantaggio (causa 167/97, Seymour-Smith). Il concetto è generalmente poco compreso a livello nazionale e la giurisprudenza nazionale è scarsa. Pertanto, le lavoratrici potrebbero essere frenate dall’avviare procedimenti giudiziari contro questi schemi retributivi.
A livello progettuale, colmare il divario retributivo è uno degli obiettivi centrali della Strategia UE per l’uguaglianza di genere 2020-2025. Un’importante iniziativa in questo senso, attualmente in discussione, è la proposta della Commissione europea per una direttiva volta a migliorare l’efficacia del quadro giuridico sulla parità retributiva, attraverso una maggiore trasparenza e una migliore applicazione delle norme. In linea generale, la proposta prevede l’obbligo per i datori di lavoro con almeno 250 dipendenti di segnalare i divari retributivi nell’organizzazione, tenendo conto anche delle componenti complementari e/o variabili della retribuzione. Tuttavia, l’obbligo sarebbe solamente in capo alle grandi realtà aziendali, escludono circa 2/3 della forza lavoro dell’UE e il 99% di tutte le imprese.
A fronte di questo scenario, secondo i ricercatori, i decisori politici e le parti sociali dovrebbero adottare misure appropriate per affrontare il divario retributivo, anche legato alle componenti correlate alla produttività. Un ruolo preminente è ricoperto proprio dalle parti sociali, essendo dimostrato che la copertura del contratto collettivo è generalmente correlata a minori disuguaglianze retributive originate dalla retribuzione legata alla performance. Naturalmente, tali considerazioni si sommano alla necessità di rafforzare gli sforzi per eliminare altre cause del divario retributivo di genere, come la segregazione occupazionale (verticale e orizzontale), che esclude le donne dalle posizioni lavorative e dai settori che impiegano il reddito legato al rendimento, o i fattori alla base del coinvolgimento delle donne nel lavoro part-time e nel lavoro atipico. Questi problemi continuano ad incidere fortemente sulle carriere delle donne e sulla loro posizione economica e devono essere affrontati con un complesso di misure che affrontino le varie dimensioni degli svantaggi strutturali di lunga data che colpiscono le donne nel lavoro.

Per approfondire: EU_gender_pay_gap

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