Mobbing, la patologia psichica come malattia professionale a cura di Aldo Arena, Legale del Patronato ANMIL di Bergamo

Roma, 25 giugno 2020 – Con ordinanza n. 8948/2020, la Corte di Cassazione ha ribadito il proprio orientamento giurisprudenziale in materia di tutela assicurativa obbligatoria per malattie collegate al cosiddetto “rischio professionale improprio”.
Il caso su cui è stata chiamata a pronunciarsi la S. C. riguarda un lavoratore che, a seguito di continue condotte vessatorie da parte del datore di lavoro, ha contratto una grave patologia psichica. Il lavoratore ha, quindi, richiesto che gli venisse corrisposto l’indennizzo previsto dal Testo Unico DPR n. 1124/1965 con relativo riconoscimento della malattia in questione, quale malattia professionale.
In secondo grado, la Corte d’Appello, in accoglimento dell’impugnazione dell’INAIL, ha respinto la domanda del lavoratore, ritenendo non tutelabile nell’ambito dell’assicurazione obbligatoria gestita dall’Ente, la malattia derivante non direttamente dalle lavorazioni elencate nell’articolo 1 del DPR n. 1124/1965. Tale affermazione trova riscontro, secondo la Corte d’appello, nella sentenza del Consiglio di Stato n. 1576/2009 la quale ha sostenuto che la malattia professionale, per essere indennizzabile, deve rientrare nell’ambito del rischio assicurato ex art. 3 T.U. 1124/1965, che riguarda solo le malattie professionali tabellate o non tabellate, contratte nell’esercizio dell’attività lavorativa ed a causa delle lavorazioni specifiche previste in tabella.
Il lavoratore proponeva, quindi, ricorso in Cassazione censurando la decisione di secondo grado per aver la Corte d’Appello errato nel disconoscere la indennizzabilità delle malattie psico-fisiche derivanti dalla costrittività organizzativa, sul presupposto che essa non attenga mai ad un rischio specifico.
Tale deliberazione sarebbe smentita anche dal Decreto del Ministro del Lavoro del 2009 nel quale viene approvata una nuova tabella in cui vengono inserite espressamente le disfunzioni della organizzazione del lavoro, tra cui rientra, senza dubbio, la costrizione organizzativa lavorativa.
Accogliendo tale motivo, la S.C. ha evidenziato come in svariate sentenze sia stato giudicato rilevante, non solo il rischio specifico proprio della lavorazione, ma anche il cosiddetto rischio specifico improprio, non strettamente insito nell’atto materiale della prestazione, ma collegato con la prestazione stessa.
A tal riguardo la S. C. ha menzionato la propria Ordinanza n. 5066/2018 nella quale viene ribadito che l’interpretazione restrittiva del concetto di rischio professionale non è in linea sia con l’ordinamento vigente che con la costante e coerente giurisprudenza di legittimità che ha interpretato il rischio di cui all’art. 1 del Testo Unico in senso più ampio. Basti pensare alla sentenza n. 3227/2011, sempre emessa dalla Corte Suprema, nella quale l’esposizione al fumo passivo di sigaretta cui è conseguita una malattia polmonare del lavoratore, è stata riconosciuta come condizione idonea ad integrare la fattispecie della malattia professionale.
La necessità del riconoscimento di un ampliamento in questo senso è testimoniata ulteriormente dal principio confermato dalla Corte Costituzionale secondo cui a parità di rischio occorre parità di tutela, approdando ad un’interpretazione secondo cui la pericolosità debba essere misurata non in funzione dell’attività svolta, ma quanto più sulla base dell’ambiente di lavoro (cosiddetto rischio ambientale). Sulla scia di tale pronuncia, nel 1988, la Corte Costituzionale ha dichiarato l’illegittimità costituzionale dell’articolo 3, comma primo, DPR n. 1124/1965 nella parte in cui non prevede che “l’assicurazione contro le malattie professionali nell’industria è obbligatoria anche per le malattie diverse da quelle comprese nelle tabelle allegate concernenti le dette malattie e da quelle causate da una lavorazione specificata”. Di talché la Corte di Cassazione con sent. 5577/1998 ha confermato le parole della Corte costituzionale ribadendo che, per le malattie nelle quali sia provata la causa di lavoro, non può essere esclusa l’indennizzabilità INAIL se la patologia in questione non rientra tra quelle indicate nelle apposite tabelle. Tale interpretazione trova piena conferma nell’art. 10 comma 4 della L. n.38/2000 e consente, quindi, di approdare alla tesi definitiva secondo cui “nell’ambito del sistema del TU, sono indennizzabili tutte le malattie di natura fisica o psichica la cui origine sia riconducibile al rischio del lavoro sia che riguardi la lavorazione, sia che riguardi l’organizzazione del lavoro e le modalità della sua esplicazione”.

Per ulteriori informazioni sul tema trattato e sui servizi associativi
è possibile chiamare il Numero Verde ANMIL gratuito 800.180943,
che, a fronte delle grandi richieste pervenute, è stato ampliato
e ora è attivo dal lunedì al venerdì, con orario continuato, dalle ore 8.30 alle ore 18.00.

Patronato ANMIL #PatronatoANMIL 

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