La protezione sociale contro il lavoro minorile

Roma, 20 maggio 2022 – L’Organizzazione Internazionale del Lavoro (OIL) e il Fondo delle Nazioni Unite per l’infanzia (UNICEF) hanno presentato il rapporto ‘The role of social protection in the elimination of child labour: Evidence review and policy implications’.
Secondo le evidenze contenute nel documento, la protezione sociale, aiutando le famiglie a far fronte agli shock economici o sanitari, riduce il lavoro minorile e facilita la scolarizzazione.
Tuttavia, sono stati compiuti pochi progressi nell’assicurare che tutti i bambini godano dei benefici offerti dalla protezione sociale. In tutto il mondo, il 73,6% (ossia circa 1,5 miliardi) di bambini di età compresa tra 0 e 14 anni, non riceve sussidi in denaro rivolti alla famiglia o ai figli.
Inoltre, più di 160 milioni di bambini in tutto il mondo – 1 bambino su 10, tra i 5 e i 17 anni – sono ancora coinvolti nel lavoro minorile e non si registrano progressi dal 2016.
Alla luce di questo scenario, OIL e UNICEF lanciano un allarme: se i responsabili politici non agiscono in modo tempestivo, la pandemia da Covid-19, il conflitto in corso, l’aumento della povertà e il cambiamento climatico non faranno che aumentare la prevalenza del lavoro minorile.
Si stima infatti che, senza strategie di mitigazione, il numero di bambini coinvolti nel lavoro minorile potrebbe aumentare di 8,9 milioni entro la fine del 2022.
Allo scopo di rafforzare i sistemi di protezione sociale per prevenire ed eliminare il lavoro minorile, il rapporto formula una serie di raccomandazioni, tra cui:

  • nel sistema di protezione sociale, è necessario dare priorità agli assegni familiari nonché estendere le tutele ai 2 miliardi di lavoratori nell’economia informale, sostenendo così la loro transizione all’economia formale;
  • è altrettanto importante costruire sistemi “integrati” di protezione sociale. Ridurre il lavoro minorile sarà più facile se i paesi disporranno di un sistema di protezione sociale che fornisce sostegni adeguati durante tutto il ciclo di vita, dai sussidi per i figli e per la famiglia ai sussidi di maternità e disoccupazione, sino alle pensioni di vecchiaia e alla protezione della salute;
  • di fondamentale rilevanza è l’implementazione di prestazioni familiari e per l’infanzia che raggiungano tutte le famiglie con figli, in particolare quelle che si trovano in situazioni di maggiore vulnerabilità;
  • per i caregiver è necessario rendere più facile ricevere le prestazioni di protezione sociale;
  • infine, risulta strategico integrare i programmi di protezione sociale con maggiori investimenti nell’istruzione di base universale e di qualità e in altri servizi sociali vitali per i bambini.

In linea più generale, è necessario cambiare approccio e considerare la protezione sociale non un costo, ma un investimento e un motore di sviluppo.

Per approfondire: ILO_UNICEF_child_labour_report

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