La politica commerciale dell’Unione Europea centrata sui lavoratori

18 maggio 2022 – La Confederazione dei sindacati europei (ETUC) ha pubblicato un concept paper che contiene alcune riflessioni sulla necessità di orientare la politica commerciale europea verso un approccio centrato sulla tutela dei lavoratori. In un momento in cui si sta discutendo su un possibile accordo di libero scambio tra UE e USA, ETUC evidenzia la necessità di arginare la liberalizzazione senza regole. Molteplici esperienze passate hanno infatti dimostrato che il commercio sleale ha esercitato pressioni al ribasso sui salari e ha minato la contrattazione collettiva in molti paesi europei, dove i salari reali non sono cresciuti in linea con la crescita della produttività e il divario tra reddito e ricchezza si è notevolmente ampliato. Questa disuguaglianza, secondo ETUC, è soprattutto il risultato di un percorso di deregolamentazione e privatizzazione del lavoro, nonché di politiche fiscali e commerciali che hanno incoraggiato una corsa al ribasso. In troppi paesi, poi, la liberalizzazione del commercio non è stata accompagnata da solide politiche del mercato del lavoro e dell’istruzione.
Per di più, la crisi pandemica ha dimostrato come le aziende esternalizzino rischi e costi verso i partner più deboli della catena di approvvigionamento. Questi modelli di business e pratiche di acquisto, quindi, a loro volta causano o contribuiscono alle ripercussioni negative sui diritti umani sui lavoratori, i piccoli imprenditori, le comunità e l’ambiente, sia nell’UE che nei paesi terzi.
Le imprese devono dunque essere vincolate da obblighi di due diligence che garantiscano condizioni di lavoro dignitose nei paesi partner, vietando pratiche commerciali sleali. Ulteriore fronte d’intervento sono gli appalti pubblici, nell’ambito dei quali devono essere rispettati i diritti fondamentali del lavoro. Pertanto, l’aggiudicazione di un appalto pubblico deve spettare solamente a quelle aziende che applicano i contratti collettivi del lavoro e rispettano i diritti dei lavoratori nelle proprie filiere.
Le economiche devono essere sostenute da sistemi di welfare pubblico ben funzionanti e finanziariamente forti. I sistemi di welfare devono essere esclusi dagli accordi commerciali che puntano alla privatizzazione. Altra priorità è la strutturazione di politiche del mercato del lavoro che prevedano sistemi sostenibili di protezione sociale e schemi per facilitare la transizione occupazionale dei lavoratori. In questo contesto, secondo ETUC, sarà fondamentale il ruolo dei sindacati.
Alla luce di queste considerazioni, ETUC traccia le linee di intervento che la politica commerciale europea dovrebbe seguire:

  • i sindacati dovrebbero essere coinvolti durante la negoziazione degli accordi commerciali;
  • gli accordi commerciali dovrebbero essere soggetti a un rigoroso riesame da parte delle parti sociali e dei Parlamenti europei e nazionali. Ascoltare i rappresentanti dei lavoratori sulla politica commerciale aiuterà infatti a collegare il commercio ai bisogni delle persone;
  • gli accordi commerciali devono contenere norme del lavoro chiare, vincolanti e applicabili. In particolare, devono essere sempre rispettati i diritti fondamentali dei lavoratori sanciti dall’OIL e gli standard internazionali sulla condotta aziendale responsabile: al contrario della prassi attuale, la ratifica e l’attuazione delle Convenzioni OIL sui diritti fondamentali dei lavoratori devono essere una condizione preliminare per avviare i negoziati commerciali con un paese terzo. Inoltre, la violazione di tali diritti deve essere sanzionata con apposite disposizioni contenute negli accordi;
  • la Commissione europea deve mostrare maggiori sforzi per garantire condizioni di lavoro dignitose e l’eliminazione del lavoro forzato attraverso gli strumenti commerciali a sua disposizione. La proposta di direttiva sulla due diligence, presentata nel febbraio 2022, si muove in tal senso ma è insufficiente.

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