La nota del caso di Debora Spagnuolo: guerra a bassa intensità

A cura dell’Avvocato Mauro Dalla Chiesa, legale ANMIL. 

Roma, 20 dicembre 2021 – Nel 2008  (fonte Anmil 2° rapporto ANMIL sulla salute e sicurezza sul posto di lavoro) si scriveva: “Quando gli incidenti sul lavoro sono circa un milione l’anno e i morti più di 1.000, non si può dire che in Italia un fondamentale diritto della persona, ossia il diritto alla vita e alla sicurezza di ciascuno nel normale svolgimento della propria attività, sia garantito. Non si tratta infatti di un fenomeno marginale e in via di estinzione, bensì di un effetto perverso che sembra profondamente innervato nel modo di produzione e nello stesso modo di essere della modernità. In realtà, siamo in presenza di un fenomeno sociale di massa, sebbene la società non lo riconosca come tale. Di certo una vera e propria guerra a bassa intensità, che di regola si svolge nell’ombra e nel silenzio. Una vergogna che macchia il Paese, che ignora il diritto al lavoro e alla sua sicurezza. E una contabilità spesso arida e anonima, persino controversa, che non ha sussulti neanche di fronte alla fine di una vita”.
I luoghi di lavoro sono il Vietnam italiano “una grande e infinita guerra, se consideriamo che, nella Seconda guerra mondiale, le perdite militari italiane furono di 135.723 morti e 225.000 feriti, mentre la lunga battaglia nei luoghi di lavoro dal 1951 al 2007 ha prodotto almeno 154.331 morti e ben 66.577.699 feriti”.
Le cifre sono impressionanti: a distanza di oltre tredici anni dalla denuncia dell’ANMIL, si contano ancora più di 1.000 morti sul lavoro nel 2021.
A ciò si aggiunge il calvario delle vittime del lavoro e dei familiari.
L’ANMIL da anni è apertamente a favore di una procura nazionale del lavoro.
Gli obiettivi dichiarati dal recente disegno di legge n. 2052 sono ambiziosi e condivisi da ANMIL: una procura «esperta», “specializzata nel fare fronte alle ipotesi di reato caratterizzate da maggiore complessità, ipotesi di reato di cui alcuni uffici non sono in grado di occuparsi, non per cattiva volontà, ma per difetto di competenza specifica e per mancanza di esperienza pregressa sul campo”.
Dunque – continua la presentazione del DDL – l’istituzione di una procura nazionale “potrebbe consentire di conseguire alcune finalità, la prima delle quali consiste nella possibilità di affrontare con indagini incisive e rapide le grandi tragedie che continuano a verificarsi e garantire la presenza di pubblici ministeri esperti nei procedimenti penali; in secondo luogo sarebbe possibile non limitarsi ad operare in seguito a tragedie già consumate, ma svolgere azioni sistematiche e organiche di prevenzione in ordine ai problemi che maggiormente insidiano la sicurezza del lavoro in violazione delle norme vigenti e penalmente sanzionate. Una terza finalità da perseguire consisterebbe nell’adozione di metodologie di indagine innovative, poiché le procedure abituali si sono rivelate ormai ampiamente superate”.
Ma è chiaro che una riforma giustamente ambiziosa potrà decollare solo se saranno messi a disposizione adeguati fondi economici e risorse organizzative.
Occorre attendere il processo di Cassazione, e quindi orientativamente tra un anno circa si dovrebbe avere la definizione della vicenda.
Dopo che dovrebbe succedere? Se confermata la condanna a due anni e sei mesi l’imputato sicuramente non subirà alcuna detenzione carceraria ma potrà agevolmente godere dell’affidamento in prova ai servizi sociali.
Comincerà a scontare la pena circa due anni dopo dal passaggio in giudicato della sentenza.
Quindi la pena verrà irrogata a circa quindici anni di distanza dal crimine commesso.
Chiunque può capire che l’effetto deterrente di un processo per un omicidio sul lavoro con questi esiti è praticamente nullo: dal punto di vista risarcitorio (se c’è qualche rischio si fanno fallire le società oppure si chiudono: tanto c’è tempo) e dal punto di vista delle pene inflitte.
E questo in caso di omicidio colposo; figuriamoci in violazione delle norme in materia di prevenzione sugli infortuni sul lavoro.
Finito il procedimento penale, Debora Spagnuolo, come migliaia di altri familiari di vittime del lavoro, dovrà ripartire da zero in un procedimento civile dove si discuterà di quantificazione del danno. Ed è facile immaginare che in quel giudizio la società di cui era titolare l’imputato dirà che non ha partecipato al processo penale e quindi ne disconoscerà  gli esiti, e il medesimo imputato nel tempo si sarà “reso nullatenente” per non pagare alcun risarcimento.
Ad andare bene saranno altri cinque-sei anni di causa e questa è la reale situazione dei familiari delle vittime del lavoro: abbandonate a se stesse e costrette ad anticipare spese per consulenti e legali prima di vedere (forse) riconosciute le loro richieste di punizione dei colpevoli e di risarcimento dei danni sofferti.
ANMIL è da sempre al fianco dei lavoratori contro questa inaccettabile situazione che vede calpestati i diritti delle vittime, anche costituendosi parte civile nei processi penali, come nel caso di Debora, e impegnandosi in una battaglia di civiltà.
In questa direzione ANMIL ha da tempo auspicato l’istituzione di una Procura nazionale del Lavoro con il compito di garantire un pool di magistrati altamente specializzati e l’obiettivo di avere un coordinamento a livello distrettuale (e non più a livello della singola Procura della Repubblica) in modo da avere avere processi più celeri e uniformità di decisioni.

 

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