Infezione da Covid-19: infortunio sul lavoro e responsabilità del datore di lavoro a cura di Aldo Arena, legale Patronato ANMIL*

Roma, 3 agosto 2020 – Il 20 maggio è stata pubblicata la circolare INAIL n. 22 grazie alla quale sono stati chiariti alcuni aspetti riguardanti il contagio da Covid-19 sul posto di lavoro. Tale circolare, resa necessaria a causa della situazione pandemica e dell’entrata in vigore del secondo comma dell’art. 42 del c.d. Decreto Cura Italia (Decreto-legge del 17 marzo 2020, n. 18, convertito con modificazioni dalla Legge del 24 aprile 2020, n. 24), ha confermato le disposizioni normative vigenti in tema di malattia-infortunio, rassicurando la crescente preoccupazione da parte delle imprese in merito ad una diretta correlazione tra contagio da Covid-19 e l’azione di regresso. Nello smentire ciò, l’INAIL ha confermato due principi essenziali. Innanzitutto, ha confermato che il contagio da Covid-19 contratto in occasione di lavoro, è assimilabile alle infezioni da epatite, brucellosi, AIDS e tetano, per la cui trattazione INAIL da decenni assicura la tutela applicando principi confermati dalla scienza medico-legale e dalla giurisprudenza di legittimità in materia di patologie causate da agenti biologici. In secondo luogo, la circolare chiarisce alcuni aspetti pratici del sopracitato art. 42 del c.d. Decreto Cura Italia e segnatamente la non incisione del costo degli oneri assicurativi (pagamento della indennità di temporanea assoluta, riconoscimento del danno biologico, costituzione delle rendite dirette e a superstiti), sull’oscillazione del tasso medio per andamento infortunistico dell’azienda, ponendo detti oneri infortunistici a carico della gestione assicurativa nel suo complesso (così come avviene per gli infortuni in itinere). La ratio di tale decisione è di evitare che questa pandemia incida sulla misura del premio pagato dal singolo datore di lavoro. Il contagio da Covid-19 è stato, infatti, ritenuto un fattore di rischio non direttamente e pienamente controllabile dal datore di lavoro, tanto che l’INAIL riconosce una piena tutela assicurativa al lavoratore contagiato senza che, però, al datore di lavoro venga imputata alcuna responsabilità in merito all’evento lesivo. L’INAIL ha altresì precisato che, considerata l’estrema difficoltà di dimostrare il momento esatto in cui vi è stata l’azione virulenta, la tutela assicurativa opera qualora vi sia una presunzione – sostenuta da indizi gravi, precisi e concordanti – che l’evento infettante si sia verificato durante lo svolgimento dell’attività lavorativa. Si tratta di una presunzione semplice e, pertanto, è sufficiente che l’evento infortunistico possa derivare come conseguenza ragionevole, probabile e verosimile dal rapporto lavorativo. È chiaro, quindi, che la circolare in esame distingue nettamente la tutela assicurativa concessa al lavoratore contagiato dall’infezione Covid-19 e le responsabilità civili e penali del datore di lavoro. Per le particolari caratteristiche del virus Covid-19 non è possibile, infatti, per le imprese garantire luoghi di lavoro a “rischio zero”, ma il datore di lavoro sarà esente rispetto all’azione di regresso qualora rispetti gli obblighi di legge e le linee guida, governative e regionali, disciplinanti le modalità di contenimento della diffusione del virus. In conclusione, se l’INAIL garantirà sempre una tutela assicurativa per ogni infortunio sul lavoro causato da infezione Covid-19, il datore di lavoro ne risponderà previo l’accertamento dei seguenti elementi: l’accertamento del nesso di causa tra la mancata attuazione delle direttive in tema di contenimento e il contagio e l’individuazione dell’omissione del datore di lavoro nell’applicazione di norme di prevenzione almeno a titolo di colpa. Quindi, soltanto in questo caso può essere esperita l’azione di regresso nei confronti del datore di lavoro e cioè nei casi di “imputabilità a titolo, quantomeno, di colpa della condotta causativa del danno”, cioè a dire solo in presenza di una comprovata violazione delle misure di contenimento da parte del datore di lavoro. Infatti, l’azione di regresso, non essendo più subordinata alla sentenza penale di condanna dopo l’intervento della Corte Costituzionale che ha rimosso la pregiudizialità penale, presuppone la configurabilità del reato perseguibile d’ufficio a carico del datore di lavoro o di altra persona del cui operato egli sia ritenuto a rispondere a norma del Codice civile. Pertanto, così come il giudizio di ragionevole probabilità in tema di nesso causale tra fatto ed evento che presiede al riconoscimento delle prestazioni assicurative, in caso di contagio da malattie infettive, non è utilizzabile in sede penale o civile, l’attivazione dell’azione di regresso da parte INAIL non può basarsi sul semplice riconoscimento dell’infezione da Sars-COV-2.

*L‘avv. Aldo Arena laureato in Giurisprudenza, iscritto all’Albo degli Avvocati di Bergamo ed all’Albo Cassazionisti dal 2004. Ha un proprio studio professionale a Bergamo. Si occupa tra l’altro di diritto previdenziale ed assistenziale, di diritto penale e responsabilità civile per infortuni sul lavoro e malattie professionali, oltre che di contrattualistica in materia di diritto del lavoro.

Per ulteriori informazioni sul tema e sui servizi associativi
è possibile chiamare il Numero Verde ANMIL gratuito 800.180943,
che, a fronte delle grandi richieste pervenute, è stato ampliato
e ora è attivo dal lunedì al venerdì, con orario continuato, dalle ore 8.30 alle ore 18.00.

Consulta anche il sito del Patronato

 

#PatronatoANMIL #infortunio #Lavoro #Covid19 #Inail #contagiosullavoro #Coronavirus #DecretoCuraItalia

61 thoughts on “Infezione da Covid-19: infortunio sul lavoro e responsabilità del datore di lavoro

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