Documento su contenimento SARS-CoV-2 nel lavoro A cura dell’Ufficio Salute e sicurezza ANMIL

Roma, 23 aprile 2020 – Sul portale dell’INAIL è stato pubblicato il Documento tecnico sulla possibile rimodulazione delle misure di contenimento del contagio da SARS-CoV-2 nei luoghi di lavoro e strategie di prevenzione, approvato dal Comitato Tecnico Scientifico istituito presso la Protezione Civile, al quale INAIL partecipa con un suo rappresentante. Il documento è composto da due parti: la prima riguarda la predisposizione di una metodologia innovativa di valutazione integrata del rischio che tiene in considerazione il rischio di venire a contatto con fonti di contagio in occasione di lavoro, di prossimità connessa ai processi lavorativi, nonché l’impatto connesso al rischio di aggregazione sociale anche verso “terzi”. Mentre la seconda parte contiene un focus sull’adozione di misure organizzative, di prevenzione e protezione e di lotta all’insorgenza di focolai epidemici, anche in considerazione di quanto già contenuto nel “Protocollo condiviso di regolamentazione delle misure per il contrasto e il contenimento della diffusione del virus #Covid-19 negli ambienti di lavoro” stipulato tra Governo e Parti sociali il 14 marzo 2020.
Precisamente il documento è finalizzato a fornire elementi tecnici di supporto al processo di decisione politica, al fine di identificare le attività produttive che gradualmente potrebbero riattivarsi garantendo un’adeguata sicurezza per i lavoratori e allo stesso tempo la sostenibilità complessiva delle politiche di contrasto all’epidemia.
L’Istituto evidenzia che un’analisi di prioritizzazione della modulazione delle misure contenitive, debba tener conto anche dell’impatto che la riattivazione di uno o più settori comporta nell’aumento di occasioni di aggregazioni sociali per la popolazione. Infatti nel report il rischio da contagio da SARS-CoV-2 in occasione di lavoro è stato classificato secondo tre variabili:
– Esposizione: la probabilità di venire in contatto con fonti di contagio nello svolgimento delle specifiche attività lavorative (es. settore sanitario, gestione dei rifiuti speciali, laboratori di ricerca, ecc.);
– Prossimità: le caratteristiche intrinseche di svolgimento del lavoro che non permettono un sufficiente distanziamento sociale (es. specifici compiti in catene di montaggio) per parte del tempo di lavoro o per la quasi totalità;
– Aggregazione: la tipologia di lavoro che prevede il contatto con altri soggetti oltre ai lavoratori dell’azienda (es. ristorazione, commercio al dettaglio, spettacolo, alberghiero, istruzione, ecc.).
Sulla base di tali premesse l’INAIL ha messo appunto una metodologia basata sul modello sviluppato sulla base dati O’NET del Bureau of Labor of Statistics statunitense integrando i dati delle indagini INAIL e ISTAT e gli aspetti connessi all’impatto sull’aggregazione sociale.
Il risultato finale ha determinato l’attribuzione del livello di rischio con relativo codice colore per ciascun settore produttivo. Ciò è stato riportato su una tabella che illustra le classi di rischio per alcuni dei principali settori lavorativi e partizioni degli stessi, nonché il relativo numero degli occupati.
Secondo l’Istituto sulla base di tale approccio si possono adottare una serie di misure atte a prevenire/mitigare il rischio di contagio per i lavoratori.
Precisamente, nel documento è stato evidenziato che vi è la necessità di adottare una serie di azioni che vadano ad integrare il documento di valutazione dei rischi (DVR) atte a prevenire il rischio di infezione SARS-CoV-2 nei luoghi di lavoro contribuendo, altresì, alla prevenzione della diffusione dell’epidemia. Tali misure sono state classificate in:
– Misure organizzative;
– Misure di prevenzione e protezione;
– Misure specifiche per la prevenzione dell’attivazione di focolai. epidemici.
Tra le misure organizzative sono state annoverate:
– la gestione degli spazi di lavoro che devono essere rimodulati nell’ottica del distanziamento sociale compatibilmente con la natura dei processi produttivi;
– l’organizzazione e l’orario di lavoro. Potranno essere adottate soluzioni organizzative innovative che riguardino sia l’articolazione dell’orario di lavoro sia i processi produttivi, limitando anche la necessità di trasferte.
In merito alle misure di prevenzione e protezione, è stato ipotizzato che in coerenza con i processi di valutazione e gestione del rischio disciplinati dal d.lgs. n.  81/2008, vadano adottate misure di carattere generale e specifico commisurate al rischio di esposizione a SARS-CoV-2 negli ambienti di lavoro privilegiando misure di prevenzione primaria. Il riferimento è:
– All’informazione e alla formazione che, da quanto si evince dal documento INAIL, devono essere adeguate, contestualizzate e, allo stesso tempo, adattate allo specifico ambito lavorativo, in modo da permettere a tutti i lavoratori di comprendere puntualmente ed esattamente le modalità del rischio, sia valorizzando l’ampia attività comunicativa già fatta rispetto al periodo di chiusura passato, sia anche valorizzando la consapevolezza reciproca del rischio che, proprio per la sua tipologia, vede la prevenzione intrinseca nel distanziamento sociale, nei comportamenti e nelle misure di prevenzione anche individuali. È quindi imprescindibile, secondo l’INAIL, mettere in atto un’incisiva ed efficace attività di informazione e formazione, con particolare riferimento al complesso delle misure adottate cui il personale deve attenersi; è altresì necessario realizzare un’efficace comunicazione anche finalizzata ad evitare, ad esempio, forme di stigmatizzazione nei confronti di lavoratori che provengono da aree a pregresso maggior rischio nonché a favorire – in tempo di “infodemia” – l’accesso a fonti istituzionali per le informazioni, evitando così il moltiplicarsi di fake news.
– Misure igieniche e di sanificazione degli ambienti. Tali misure, già descritte nei documenti prodotti dal Ministero della Salute e dall’ISS, si concretizzano nei comportamenti da seguire per l’intera popolazione.
– Utilizzo di mascherine e dispositivi di protezione individuali (DPI) per le vie respiratorie. A riguardo il rappoto sottolinea che vanno mappate tutte le attività, prevedendo di norma, per tutti i lavoratori che condividono spazi comuni, l’utilizzo di una mascherina chirurgica, come sancito anche dall’articolo 34 del D.L. n. 9/2020 in combinato con l’articolo 18 del D.L. n. 18/2020. Nel documento viene altresì evidenziato come la valutazione dei rischi nelle singole realtà aziendali sia lo strumento adeguato per la determinazione di specifici DPI anche in relazione al complesso dei rischi per la salute e sicurezza dei lavoratori.
– Sorveglianza sanitaria e tutela dei lavoratori fragili. Precisamente, l’INAIL ha puntualizzato che, relativamente alle aziende dove non è già presente il medico competente, in via straordinaria, va pensata la nomina di un medico competente ad hoc per il periodo emergenziale o soluzioni alternative, anche con il coinvolgimento delle strutture territoriali pubbliche (ad esempio, servizi prevenzionali territoriali, INAIL, ecc.) che, come per altre attività, possano effettuare le visite, magari anche a richiesta del lavoratore. Pertanto, il medico competente va a rivestire un ruolo centrale soprattutto per l’identificazione dei soggetti suscettibili e per il reinserimento lavorativo di soggetti con pregressa infezione da SARS-CoV-2.
Infine, per ciò che concerne le misure specifiche per la prevenzione dell’attivazione di focolai epidemici nella fase di transizione secondo l’Istituto va considerato il rischio di una riattivazione di focolai nei luoghi di lavoro, mettendo quindi in atto una serie di misure volte a contrastarli.

Consulta il documento integrale: Documento tecnico INAIL_Aprile 2020

#sicurezzasullavoro #prevenzione

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