Approvato il decreto N. 101/2019. Più tutele per i lavoratori digitali a cura dell'Ufficio Salute e Sicurezza

06 settembre 2019 – L’emanazione del decreto legge n. 101 del 3 settembre 2019, recante Disposizioni urgenti per la tutela del lavoro e per la risoluzione di crisi aziendali, segna la parola fine all’ampio dibattito dottrinale e giurisprudenziale circa le tipologie di inquadramento contrattuale da adottare per il lavoro a chiamata tramite piattaforma, con particolare riferimento all’estensione delle tutele da accordare ai gig workers, vale a dire tutti quei lavoratori saltuari, senza contratto, il cui lavoro si frammenta nella singola prestazione. Tra questi, ad emergere, sono i c.d. riders.
Il suddetto dibattito dottrinale e giurisprudenziale è caratterizzato da interventi piuttosto frammentari – sia sul fronte giurisprudenziale, sia in ambito negoziale e legislativo, anche a livello locale – sulla opportunità di riconoscere la natura subordinata oppure autonoma dei lavori su piattaforma, da cui dipendono diversi livelli di tutela.
Ad interpellarsi sulla qualificazione contrattuale dei lavoratori su piattaforma è stata in primis la giurisprudenza di diversi Stati del mondo, riconoscendo in modo piuttosto disomogeneo alle volte la natura autonoma, altre volte quella subordinata del lavoro su piattaforma. In ambito nazionale, le prime sentenze in materia hanno disatteso le richieste dei lavoratori relative all’accertamento della natura subordinata dei rapporti intercorrenti con la piattaforma, confermandone la natura autonoma. Il riferimento è alla sentenza del Tribunale di Torino del 7 maggio 2018 n. 778 e a quella del Tribunale di Milano del 10 settembre 2018 n. 1853.
Diverso è stato l’orientamento della Corte di Appello di Torino nella sentenza n. 26 del 4 febbraio 2019, che ha parzialmente riformato la sentenza del Tribunale di Torino n. 778/2018, ritenendo corretta la qualificazione del rapporto di lavoro come autonomo, ma accogliendo al contempo la domanda dei lavoratori di vedere applicato l’art. 2 del d.lgs. 15 giugno 2015 n. 81.
A livello legislativo, il primo importante riconoscimento normativo è stato partorito in ambito europeo. Il 16 aprile 2019, infatti, è stata approvata una direttiva europea a tutela dei lavoratori della gig economy, mediante la quale sono stati accordati “diritti minimi” a lavoratori occasionali o a breve termine (tra cui i lavoratori su piattaforma), nonché ai tirocinanti e agli apprendisti. La scelta è stata dunque quella di attribuire ai nuovi lavoratori atipici un paniere di tutele minime.
In Italia, con il decreto legge n. 101 del 3 settembre 2019 sono stati finalmente fissati i livelli minimi di tutela cui hanno diritto i lavoratori impiegati nelle attività di consegna di beni per conto altrui, in ambito urbano e con l’ausilio di veicoli a due ruote o assimilabili, anche attraverso piattaforme digitali (c.d. riders). Nel dettaglio, l’art.1, lettera a) del DL n. 101/2019 ha modificato il comma 1, dell’art. 2 del d.lgs. n.81/2015 (Jobs Act), estendendo la disciplina del rapporto di lavoro subordinato anche qualora le modalità di esecuzione della prestazione siano organizzate mediante piattaforme, anche digitali. Mentre alla lettera b) dell’articolo 1 è stata disposta l’introduzione del capo V-bis (articoli da 47-bis al 47- quater) al d.lgs. n. 81/2015, recante disposizioni per la tutela del lavoro tramite piattaforme digitali. Entrando più nel dettaglio, l’articolo 47-bis riporta la definizione di piattaforme digitali, vale a dire quei programmi e quelle procedure informatiche, facenti capo ad imprese, che, indipendentemente dal luogo di stabilimento, organizzano le attività di consegna di beni, fissandone il prezzo e determinando le modalità di esecuzione della prestazione.
Sono state poi dettagliate le tutele che riguardano il meccanismo di calcolo del corrispettivo, prevedendo che questo, per i riders, potrà essere determinato in base alle consegne effettuate, purché in misura non prevalente. La retribuzione a base oraria sarà dunque riconosciuta, a condizione che, per ciascuna ora lavorativa, il lavoratore accetti almeno una chiamata. È stato inoltre specificato che i contratti collettivi potranno definire schemi retributivi modulari e incentivanti, che tengano conto delle modalità di svolgimento della prestazione e dei diversi modelli organizzativi.

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