Audizione del Ministro Catalfo sul caporalato in agricoltura in Commissioni Riunite a cura dell'Ufficio Servizi Istituzionali

6 dicembre 2019 -Le Commissioni riunite Lavoro e Agricoltura della Camera, nell’ambito dell’indagine conoscitiva sul fenomeno del caporalato in agricoltura, hanno svolto l’audizione del Ministro del Lavoro e delle Politiche Sociali Nunzia Catalfo.
In apertura del suo intervento, il Ministro ha richiamato l’importanza di un’azione sinergica tra i vari attori istituzionali, indispensabile per combattere la piaga dolorosa dello sfruttamento del lavoro in particolari settori, come quello agricolo, le cui caratteristiche sono purtroppo terreno fertile per l’attività criminosa dei caporali.
La dimensione del fenomeno, osserva il Ministro, è ben rappresentata dai dati sull’attività ispettiva svolta dall’Ispettorato Nazionale del Lavoro. Nel 2018, su oltre 7000 ispezioni, è stato registrato un tasso di irregolarità pari al 54,8%, con oltre 5000 lavoratori interessati da violazioni. L’azione ispettiva di contrasto alle cosiddette cooperative spurie ha accertato l’occupazione irregolare di oltre 28.000 persone. Sempre nel 2018 l’attività di contrasto alla intermediazione illecita ha interessato oltre 1400 lavoratori, di cui oltre il 40% è risultato essere totalmente irregolare. Nello stesso anno, le attività di polizia giudiziaria, grazie all’impegno del Corpo dei Carabinieri, ha comportato il deferimento all’autorità giudiziaria di 299 persone, in aumento rispetto al 2017.
Nel corso del 2019 i dati sono ancora più significativi: solo da gennaio a novembre di quest’anno, e solo nel settore agricolo, risultano deferite all’autorità giudiziaria 290 persone, a fronte delle 183 del 2018.
L’attività di vigilanza è stata fortemente implementata su tutto il territorio, con una movimentazione di personale a livello interregionale e la creazione di apposite task force, aumentando gli accessi e potenziando i controlli nei territori dove il fenomeno ha maggiore diffusione. Tra i fenomeni che determinano l’alta incidenza del fenomeno sono da annoverare il massiccio impiego di manodopera per brevi periodi e in luoghi isolati rispetto ai centri abitati, i servizi di trasporto rurale inadeguati, la dispersione di valore che avviene lungo la filiera agroalimentare.
Alla luce dei dati, sottolinea il Ministro, è dovere delle Istituzioni combattere il fenomeno, che non riguarda solo gli stranieri, ma anche tanti italiani. Ricorda, ad esempio, la triste vicenda di Paola Clemente, morta proprio a causa dello sfruttamento nei campi della Puglia. Non è, inoltre, una piaga che riguarda solo l’agricoltura e solo le Regioni del sud, ma un problema trasversale e complesso che interessa tutto il Paese.
Nell’ambito delle attività poste in essere dalle Istituzioni sul tema, Catalfo ha quindi richiamato il lavoro del Tavolo tecnico sul caporalato, istituito lo scorso 16 ottobre presso il Ministero del Lavoro. Nella sua riunione di insediamento, al tavolo è stata presentata la bozza di Piano Triennale per il contrasto al fenomeno, che si basa su quattro pilastri fondamentali: la prevenzione, la vigilanza, la protezione e l’assistenza delle vittime e la loro reintegrazione socio lavorativa. Il Piano si articola poi in dieci azioni prioritarie, sette delle quali sono dedicate alla prevenzione del fenomeno attraverso la creazione di un sistema informativo unitario, ad investimenti nell’innovazione del settore agricolo, al rafforzamento della Rete del lavoro agricolo di qualità, al potenziamento dei Centri per l’impiego, ad interventi per garantire soluzioni di alloggio dignitose per i lavoratori, al potenziamento dei trasporti, all’avvio di una campagna di comunicazione sull’argomento. Ulteriori azioni sono dedicate al rafforzamento della vigilanza e dei controlli, alla creazione di un sistema di servizi integrati per la protezione e la prima assistenza delle vittime e alla loro reintegrazione socio lavorativa.
In chiusura dell’audizione, il Ministro ha voluto sottolineare come la lotta al caporalato sia innanzitutto una scelta di civiltà, che deve muovere da tre obiettivi fondamentali. La piena attuazione delle norme, la creazione di una rete sul territorio tra tutti gli attori pubblici e la trasparenza dell’incrocio tra domanda e offerta di lavoro, strumento indispensabile per neutralizzare l’intermediazione illecita dei caporali.

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