Scuola, i limiti della Dad: peggiora il livello di apprendimento, di socialità e di crescita

I risultati della ricerca condotta da Parole O_Stili e dall’Istituto Toniolo su studenti e insegnanti della scuola primaria e secondaria.

Roma, 19 marzo 2021 – Lezioni in presenza e lezioni a distanza non sono assimilabili in nessun modo, a parte ricorrere alla Dad per l’emergenza sanitaria, tutto è decisamente peggiore come stiamo sperimentando da oltre un anno, a livello di apprendimento, di socialità, di crescita. Una ricerca di Parole O_Stili e Istituto Toniolo, condotta con il supporto tecnico di Ipsos, su oltre 3.500 studenti della scuola secondaria di secondo grado e su circa 2.000 insegnanti della scuola primaria e secondaria mette in luce questi ed altri aspetti, dando conferma statistica di quello che è sotto gli occhi di tutti i genitori ora alle prese con il nuovo lockdown per la gran parte delle regioni. Oltre il 40% degli studenti ha percepito un peggioramento nelle proprie attività di studio e il 65% fatica a seguire le lezioni. E poi la distanza “relazionale” tra i compagni di classe e tra studenti e professori: 1 su 4 ha patito di avere meno rapporti e un minor dialogo con i prof. Oltre il 70% ha beneficiato dell’aiuto dei familiari, che però hanno dovuto compensare una carenza di competenze tecnologiche. E inoltre: cosa accade durante le lezioni a distanza? Pur senza colpevolizzare nessuno, chi ha in casa figli studenti lo sa bene, l’attenzione è infinitamente più bassa rispetto a scuola e mentre l’insegnante spiega molto spesso i ragazzi chattano con i compagni (ben il 96% secondo lo studio), navigano o scrivono sui social (l’89%), mangiano (l’88%) e persino usando il vivavoce cucinano (1 su 4). Così se da una parte le lezioni a distanza hanno accelerato anche in ambito scolastico la rivoluzione digitale che con la pandemia ha coinvolto praticamente tutti i settori della società (il 79% ha risposto favorevolmente all’uso scolastico degli strumenti digitali che ha consentito di svolgere le lezioni) molto meno ha invogliato a studiare o ha migliorato lo studio e dunque l’apprendimento. Di contro, emerge dalla ricerca, che molti studenti hanno però sperimentato il digitale in modo spontaneo e creativo, non solo per confrontarsi tra loro durante le lezioni, ma anche per svolgere attività autonome fuori dall’orario di lezione (per ricerche e gruppi di studio a distanza). Altra conferma statistica riguarda i social: gli studenti hanno dichiarato di aver utilizzato i social con un aumento del 73%: in testa WhatsApp, Instagram, YouTube e a seguire Tik Tok. Soltanto il 17% dei genitori ha imposto limitazioni sulle ore trascorse allo smartphone, il 14% sui social il 13% sui videogiochi. “Non basta avere gli strumenti digitali che funzionino: non c’è apprendimento significativo senza una relazione significativa, fatta anche di sguardi che sanno bucare lo schermo e arrivare al cuore dei ragazzi – afferma Rosy Russo, presidente di Parole O_Stili – Vivere il digitale non si improvvisa, richiede educazione e cultura. È per questo che chiediamo al Ministero dell’Istruzione di introdurre in tutte le scuole un’ora di cittadinanza digitale alla settimana a partire dal mondo dell’infanzia.” Per Alessandro Rosina, Docente di Demografia e Statistica Sociale (Università Cattolica) e coordinatore scientifico di Laboratorio Futuro dell’Istituto Toniolo, “la mancanza dell’interazione diretta, della dimensione relazionale di classe, assieme ad un uso delle nuove tecnologie adattate alle modalità di lezione tradizionale, ha impoverito tutte le dimensioni del processo formativo, riducendo motivazione e impegno soprattutto nelle componenti più fragili a rischio di abbandono. La richiesta che arriva è quella di tornare in presenza ma traendo dall’emergenza anche la spinta per un uso più positivo ed efficace gli strumenti digitali sperimentati”. 

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