Scuola, il decreto inclusione: la scheda delle novità

Il CdM ha approvato in via definitiva il decreto inclusione, che era stato esaminato in via preliminare lo scorso maggio. Il ministero dell’Istruzione, in una sua nota, sottolinea che il provvedimento contiene “nuove norme a favore degli alunni con disabilità” ed esprime “un nuovo approccio verso l’inclusione e un passo avanti decisivo per allineare l’Italia, già all’avanguardia nei servizi per gli studenti con disabilità, alla nuova visione internazionale dell’integrazione”. A partire dall’assegnazione delle ore di sostegno, che verrà decisa d’intesa con le famiglie, sussidi, strumenti, metodologie di studio non saranno più elaborati – spiega il ministero – in modo standard, in base al tipo di disabilità, ma con un Piano didattico individualizzato che guarderà alle caratteristiche del singolo studente.
L’intera comunità scolastica sarà coinvolta nei processi di inclusione. Viene rivista la composizione delle commissioni mediche per l’accertamento della condizione di disabilità ai fini dell’inclusione scolastica: saranno sempre presenti, oltre a un medico legale che presiede la Commissione, un medico specialista in pediatria o neuropsichiatria e un medico specializzato nella patologia dell’alunno. Anche i genitori e, dove possibile, se maggiorenni, gli stessi alunni con disabilità, potranno partecipare al processo di attribuzione delle misure di sostegno.
Inoltre, nascono i Gruppi per l’inclusione territoriale (Git), formati su base provinciale, ovvero nuclei di docenti esperti che supporteranno le scuole nella redazione del Piano educativo individualizzato (Pei) e nell’uso dei sostegni previsti nel Piano per l’Inclusione. I Git avranno anche il compito di verificare la congruità della richiesta complessiva dei posti di sostegno che il dirigente scolastico invierà all’Ufficio scolastico regionale.
A livello scolastico opererà il Gruppo di lavoro operativo per l’inclusione, composto dal team dei docenti contitolari o dal consiglio di classe, con la partecipazione dei genitori dell’alunno con disabilità, delle figure professionali specifiche, interne ed esterne all’istituzione scolastica che interagiscono con l’alunno stesso, nonché con il supporto dell’unità di valutazione multidisciplinare e con un rappresentante designato dall’Ente Locale. Il Gruppo di lavoro operativo per l’inclusione avrà il compito di redigere il Piano educativo individualizzato, compresa la proposta di quantificazione di ore di sostegno.

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